Gynecomastia is the most prevalent male breast condition. It is defined as breast augmentation that is characterised by a rubbery or hard palpable tissue that spreads symmetrically outward from the nipple region. Under microscopic examination, this is a benign disease characterised by the development of male glandular breast tissue. It manifests itself symmetrically in both breasts.
According to research studies, the prevalence of gynecomastia ranges between 30 and 60%. There are three age groups where this occurrence is most often observed across a lifetime. The first is during infancy, since the placenta transforms maternal hormones into estrogenic chemicals throughout pregnancy. These hormones penetrate the placenta and enter the baby's circulation, stimulating male breast tissue growth. Second, due to the hormonal changes that occur during this era of fast development, it is most often noticed during puberty (10-14 years old). Finally, it occurs in the senior age group (50-80 years old), which may be due to an increase in fat tissue development. This extra fat tissue is turned into oestrogen, which causes male breast glandular growth.
Gynecomastia is often caused by a hormonal imbalance in males, with oestrogen secretion predominating as a result of excessive oestrogen production or a reduction in androgenic hormone synthesis. Estrogen is an essential hormone that promotes the growth of breast tissue. It promotes additional growth of the breast ducts, causing them to expand and branch widely. Estrogen enhances the vascularity of breast tissue as well. This hormonal imbalance can be caused by a variety of causes such as puberty, the use of estrogenic medicines, liver illness, renal disease, hyperthyroidism, tumours that generate oestrogen and prolactin. It can also be induced by an increase in the activity of aromatase, an enzyme involved in the production of oestrogen.
Gynecomastia patients typically appear with bilateral breast involvement. However, there are certain situations when breast growth is asymmetrical or only present in one breast. Breast probing often reveals a palpable, hard, moveable ovoid mound of tissue immediately under the nipple-areolar area. There are no discernible nodules beneath the areola. To distinguish it from other breast diseases, an ultrasound or mammography might be performed. Breast biopsy might be performed to confirm the diagnosis if the findings of breast imaging tests are unclear. Following confirmation of the diagnosis, the patient is subjected to blood testing to rule out secondary sources of hormone imbalance.
If the gynecomastia was caused by a medical issue, the original medical disease should be addressed first. Medications and supplements that promote oestrogen production should be avoided. Patients are then invited to return after 6 months to a year. If symptoms do not improve, medicines such as oestrogen receptor blockers may be used. However, for individuals who find the symptoms emotionally upsetting, surgical excision of the enlarged breast tissue may be recommended. Subcutaneous mastectomy is the medical term for this procedure.
Pseudogynecomastia, commonly known as chest fat or lipomastia, is another prevalent breast disease seen in obese guys. It is distinguished by significant fat accumulation on both breasts. It is also a benign disease with no growth of male glandular breast tissue under microscopic examination. It also develops on both breasts symmetrically.
Unlike gynecomastia, there is no epidemiologic evidence on the prevalence and incidence of pseudogynecomastia. However, due to an increase in the frequency of obesity among men, the incidence of pseudogynecomastia is expected to rise. Because there is proportionate and symmetrical fat accumulation in all body regions, individuals with excess chest fat seldom seek medical attention unless their symptoms become aesthetically bothersome.
Pseudogynecomastia is caused by an increase in adipose tissue. Aromatase is an enzyme present in fat cells. It catalyses the conversion of oestrogen precursors to oestrogen. Obese people have an increase in the expression of the aromatase enzyme in fat tissue. As a result, the conversion of oestrogen precursors to oestrogen is enhanced. Increased oestrogen availability encourages additional glandular development of male breast tissue, resulting in pseudogynecomastia.
In contrast to gynecomastia, people with pseudogynecomastia have no palpable lump on the breast tissue. Soft fatty tissue can be palpated under the nipple-areolar complex. There is little resistance to palpation of the breast in people with extra chest fat, as found in patients with gynecomastia. Breast imaging modalities such as mammography and ultrasound are regularly used to rule out the possibility of malignant illnesses of the breast. Hormonal testing is not typically performed unless the diagnosis is still unknown.
Treatment for people with extra fat tissue on the chest, unlike gynecomastia, is not typically needed. They are, however, typically encouraged to adopt weight-loss-promoting lifestyle modifications in order to enhance overall health and reduce risk factors for developing cardiovascular illnesses.
The two most frequent causes of benign breast growth in males are gynecomastia and pseudogynecomastia. Gynecomastia is often caused by excessive estrogenic stimulation of the breast tissue, whereas pseudogynecomastia is caused by excessive fat accumulation in the chest as a result of obesity. Between the two, gynecomastia is treated like an illness, and the mechanism causing hormonal imbalance is typically addressed. Pseudogynecomastia, on the other hand, spontaneously resolves with a successful weight loss plan. For gynecomastia doctor in Gurgaon contact Lamidas today.